J. Zhu and W. Paul, CD4 T cells: fates, functions, and faults, Blood, vol.112, issue.5, pp.1557-1569, 2008.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2008-05-078154

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518872

D. Dunne and A. Cooke, Opinion: A worm's eye view of the immune system: consequences for evolution of human autoimmune disease, Nature Reviews Immunology, vol.171, issue.5, pp.420-426, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.69.7.4417-4423.2001

E. Pearce, P. Caspar, J. Grzych, F. Lewis, and A. Sher, Downregulation of Th1 cytokine production accompanies induction of Th2 responses by a parasitic helminth, Schistosoma mansoni, Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.173, issue.1, pp.159-166, 1991.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.173.1.159

T. Mosmann and R. Coffman, TH1 and TH2 Cells: Different Patterns of Lymphokine Secretion Lead to Different Functional Properties, Annual Review of Immunology, vol.7, issue.1, pp.145-173, 1989.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.iy.07.040189.001045

D. Strachan, Hay fever, hygiene, and household size., BMJ, vol.299, issue.6710, p.1259, 1989.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.299.6710.1259

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1838109

A. Abruzzi and B. Fried, Coinfection of Schistosoma (Trematoda) with Bacteria, Protozoa and Helminths, Adv Parasitol, vol.77, pp.1-85, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-12-391429-3.00005-8

P. Salgame, G. Yap, and W. Gause, Effect of helminth-induced immunity on infections with microbial pathogens, Nature Immunology, vol.135, issue.11, pp.1118-1126, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001582

P. Fallon, Immunopathology of schistosomiasis: a cautionary tale of mice and men, Immunology Today, vol.21, issue.1, pp.29-35, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0167-5699(99)01551-0

P. Fallon and N. Mangan, Suppression of TH2-type allergic reactions by helminth infection, Nature Reviews Immunology, vol.167, issue.3, pp.220-230, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/nri2039

L. Brunet, F. Finkelman, A. Cheever, M. Kopf, and E. Pearce, IL-4 protects against TNF-alpha-mediated cachexia and death during acute schistosomiasis, J Immunol, vol.159, pp.777-785, 1997.

D. Herbert, T. Orekov, A. Roloson, M. Ilies, and C. Perkins, Arginase I Suppresses IL-12/IL-23p40-Driven Intestinal Inflammation during Acute Schistosomiasis, The Journal of Immunology, vol.184, issue.11, pp.6438-6446, 2010.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.0902009

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2921223

J. Actor, M. Shirai, M. Kullberg, R. Buller, and A. Sher, Helminth infection results in decreased virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell and Th1 cytokine responses as well as delayed virus clearance., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.90, issue.3, pp.948-952, 1993.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.90.3.948

M. Araujo, S. Bliss, Y. Suzuki, A. Alcaraz, and E. Denkers, Interleukin-12 Promotes Pathologic Liver Changes and Death in Mice Coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and Toxoplasma gondii, Infection and Immunity, vol.69, issue.3, pp.1454-1462, 2001.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.69.3.1454-1462.2001

M. Edwards, O. Buchatska, M. Ashton, M. Montoya, and Q. Bickle, Reciprocal Immunomodulation in a Schistosome and Hepatotropic Virus Coinfection Model, The Journal of Immunology, vol.175, issue.10, pp.6275-6285, 2005.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.175.10.6275

L. Van-valen, A new Evolutionary law, Evolutionary Theory, vol.1, pp.1-30, 1973.

T. Ichinohe, I. Pang, Y. Kumamoto, D. Peaper, and J. Ho, Microbiota regulates immune defense against respiratory tract influenza A virus infection, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.108, issue.13, pp.5354-5359, 2011.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1019378108

M. Abt, L. Osborne, L. Monticelli, T. Doering, and T. Alenghat, Commensal Bacteria Calibrate the Activation Threshold of Innate Antiviral Immunity, Immunity, vol.37, issue.1, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2012.04.011

C. Krempl and P. Collins, Reevaluation of the Virulence of Prototypic Strain 15 of Pneumonia Virus of Mice, Journal of Virology, vol.78, issue.23, pp.13362-13365, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.78.23.13362-13365.2004

D. Grimm, P. Staeheli, M. Hufbauer, I. Koerner, and L. Martínez-sobrido, Replication fitness determines high virulence of influenza A virus in mice carrying functional Mx1 resistance gene, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.104, issue.16, pp.6806-6811, 2007.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0701849104

D. Morton and P. Griffiths, Guidelines on the recognition of pain, distress and discomfort in experimental animals and an hypothesis for assessment, Veterinary Record, vol.116, issue.16, pp.431-436, 1985.
DOI : 10.1136/vr.116.16.431

G. Mouahid, M. Idris, O. Verneau, A. Théron, and M. Shaban, A new chronotype of Schistosoma mansoni: adaptive significance, Tropical Medicine & International Health, vol.49, issue.6, pp.727-732, 2012.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2012.02988.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00700341

O. Standen, The penetration of the cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni into the skin and lymphatics of the mouse, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.47, issue.4, pp.292-298, 1953.
DOI : 10.1016/0035-9203(53)90051-0

C. Krempl, A. Wnekowicz, E. Lamirande, G. Nayebagha, and P. Collins, Identification of a Novel Virulence Factor in Recombinant Pneumonia Virus of Mice, Journal of Virology, vol.81, issue.17, pp.9490-9501, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.00364-07

M. Kool, T. Soullié, M. Van-nimwegen, M. Willart, and F. Muskens, Alum adjuvant boosts adaptive immunity by inducing uric acid and activating inflammatory dendritic cells, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.25, issue.4, pp.869-882, 2008.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.20040035

C. Wu, J. Peluso, J. Shanley, L. Puddington, and R. Thrall, Murine Cytomegalovirus Influences Foxj1 Expression, Ciliogenesis, and Mucus Plugging in Mice with Allergic Airway Disease, The American Journal of Pathology, vol.172, issue.3, pp.714-724, 2008.
DOI : 10.2353/ajpath.2008.070462

S. Lienenklaus, M. Cornitescu, N. Zietara, M. ?yszkiewicz, and N. Gekara, Novel Reporter Mouse Reveals Constitutive and Inflammatory Expression of IFN-?? In Vivo, The Journal of Immunology, vol.183, issue.5, pp.3229-3236, 2009.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.0804277

Y. Chang, H. Kim, L. Albacker, N. Baumgarth, and A. Mckenzie, Innate lymphoid cells mediate influenza-induced airway hyper-reactivity independently of adaptive immunity, Nature Immunology, vol.68, issue.7, pp.631-638, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/cmi.2010.3

J. Morgan, R. Dejong, G. Adeoye, E. Ansa, and C. Barbosa, Origin and diversification of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni, Molecular Ecology, vol.11, issue.12, pp.3889-3902, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02709.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01495237

G. Henderson, N. Nix, M. Montesano, D. Gold, and G. Freeman, Two distinct pathological syndromes in male CBA/J inbred mice with chronic Schistosoma mansoni infections, Am J Pathol, vol.142, pp.703-714, 1993.

S. Scheer, S. Gross, G. Mouahid, H. Moné, and M. Lamers, A novel tool to identify the relative contribution of lymphoid cell types that contribute to IL-10 production during the infection with Schistosoma mansoni: The TIGER index, Journal of Immunological Methods, vol.406, pp.66-73, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jim.2014.03.008

M. Willart, K. Deswarte, P. Pouliot, H. Braun, and R. Beyaert, Interleukin-1?? controls allergic sensitization to inhaled house dust mite via the epithelial release of GM-CSF and IL-33, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.259, issue.8, pp.1505-1517, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/ni1247

B. Lambrecht and H. Hammad, Biology of Lung Dendritic Cells at the Origin of Asthma, Immunity, vol.31, issue.3, pp.412-424, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2009.08.008

M. Pichery, E. Mirey, P. Mercier, E. Lefrançais, and A. Dujardin, Endogenous IL-33 Is Highly Expressed in Mouse Epithelial Barrier Tissues, Lymphoid Organs, Brain, Embryos, and Inflamed Tissues: In Situ Analysis Using a Novel Il-33-LacZ Gene Trap Reporter Strain, The Journal of Immunology, vol.188, issue.7, pp.3488-3495, 2012.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.1101977

D. Neill, S. Wong, A. Bellosi, R. Flynn, and M. Daly, Nuocytes represent a new innate effector leukocyte that mediates type-2 immunity, Nature, vol.33, issue.7293, pp.1367-1370, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/nature08900

J. Mjösberg, S. Trifari, N. Crellin, C. Peters, and C. Van-drunen, Human IL-25- and IL-33-responsive type 2 innate lymphoid cells are defined by expression of CRTH2 and CD161, Nature Immunology, vol.169, issue.11, pp.1055-1062, 2011.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkp045

L. Monticelli, G. Sonnenberg, M. Abt, T. Alenghat, and C. Ziegler, Innate lymphoid cells promote lung-tissue homeostasis after infection with influenza virus, Nature Immunology, vol.175, issue.11, pp.1045-1054, 2011.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0506580102

G. Zhen, S. Park, L. Nguyenvu, M. Rodriguez, and R. Barbeau, IL-13 and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Have Critical but Distinct Roles in Epithelial Cell Mucin Production, American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol.36, issue.2, pp.244-253, 2007.
DOI : 10.1165/rcmb.2006-0180OC

J. Lora, D. Zhang, S. Liao, T. Burwell, and A. King, Tumor Necrosis Factor-?? Triggers Mucus Production in Airway Epithelium through an I??B Kinase ??-dependent Mechanism, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.280, issue.43, pp.36510-36517, 2005.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M507977200

P. Thai, A. Loukoianov, S. Wachi, and R. Wu, Regulation of Airway Mucin Gene Expression, Annual Review of Physiology, vol.70, issue.1, pp.405-429, 2008.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.physiol.70.113006.100441

H. Young, O. Williams, D. Chandra, L. Bellinghausen, and G. Pérez, Central Role of Muc5ac Expression in Mucous Metaplasia and Its Regulation by Conserved 5??? Elements, American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol.37, issue.3, pp.273-290, 2007.
DOI : 10.1165/rcmb.2005-0460OC

C. Evans, K. Kim, M. Tuvim, and B. Dickey, Mucus hypersecretion in asthma: causes and effects, Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, vol.15, issue.1, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/MCP.0b013e32831da8d3

K. Peppel, D. Crawford, and B. Beutler, A tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-IgG heavy chain chimeric protein as a bivalent antagonist of TNF activity, Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.174, issue.6, pp.1483-1489, 1991.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.174.6.1483

C. Ehre, E. Worthington, R. Liesman, B. Grubb, and D. Barbier, Overexpressing mouse model demonstrates the protective role of Muc5ac in the lungs, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.109, issue.41, pp.16528-16533, 2012.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1206552109

M. Horisberger, P. Staeheli, and O. Haller, Interferon induces a unique protein in mouse cells bearing a gene for resistance to influenza virus., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.80, issue.7, pp.1910-1914, 1983.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.80.7.1910

D. Holzinger, C. Jorns, S. Stertz, S. Boisson-dupuis, and R. Thimme, Induction of MxA Gene Expression by Influenza A Virus Requires Type I or Type III Interferon Signaling, Journal of Virology, vol.81, issue.14, pp.7776-7785, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.00546-06

S. Frey, C. Krempl, A. Schmitt-gräff, and S. Ehl, Role of T Cells in Virus Control and Disease after Infection with Pneumonia Virus of Mice, Journal of Virology, vol.82, issue.23, pp.11619-11627, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.00375-08

U. Buchholz, J. Ward, E. Lamirande, B. Heinze, and C. Krempl, Deletion of Nonstructural Proteins NS1 and NS2 from Pneumonia Virus of Mice Attenuates Viral Replication and Reduces Pulmonary Cytokine Expression and Disease, Journal of Virology, vol.83, issue.4, pp.1969-1980, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.02041-08

G. Schramm, K. Mohrs, M. Wodrich, M. Doenhoff, and E. Pearce, Cutting Edge: IPSE/alpha-1, a Glycoprotein from Schistosoma mansoni Eggs, Induces IgE-Dependent, Antigen-Independent IL-4 Production by Murine Basophils In Vivo, The Journal of Immunology, vol.178, issue.10, pp.6023-6027, 2007.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.178.10.6023

S. Steinfelder, J. Andersen, J. Cannons, C. Feng, and M. Joshi, The major component in schistosome eggs responsible for conditioning dendritic cells for Th2 polarization is a T2 ribonuclease (omega-1), The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.159, issue.8, pp.1681-1690, 2009.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2008-05-078154

B. Everts, G. Perona-wright, H. Smits, C. Hokke, and A. Van-der-ham, eggs, drives Th2 responses, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.148, issue.8, pp.1673-1680, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/ni.1737

R. Marillier, T. Brombacher, B. Dewals, M. Leeto, and M. Barkhuizen, IL-4R??-responsive smooth muscle cells increase intestinal hypercontractility and contribute to resistance during acute Schistosomiasis, AJP: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, vol.298, issue.6, pp.943-951, 2010.
DOI : 10.1152/ajpgi.00321.2009

T. Korn, E. Bettelli, M. Oukka, and V. Kuchroo, IL-17 and Th17 Cells, Annual Review of Immunology, vol.27, issue.1, pp.485-517, 2009.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.immunol.021908.132710

G. Perona-wright, R. Lundie, S. Jenkins, L. Webb, and R. Grencis, Concurrent Bacterial Stimulation Alters the Function of Helminth-Activated Dendritic Cells, Resulting in IL-17 Induction, The Journal of Immunology, vol.188, issue.5, pp.2350-2358, 2012.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.1101642

S. Hasnain, C. Evans, M. Roy, A. Gallagher, and K. Kindrachuk, Muc5ac: a critical component mediating the rejection of enteric nematodes, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.162, issue.5, pp.893-900, 2011.
DOI : 10.1165/rcmb.2005-0460OC

R. Marillier, C. Michels, E. Smith, L. Fick, and M. Leeto, IL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections, BMC Immunology, vol.9, issue.1, pp.11-21, 2008.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2172-9-11

F. Heinzel, M. Sadick, B. Holaday, R. Coffman, and R. Locksley, Reciprocal expression of interferon gamma or interleukin 4 during the resolution or progression of murine leishmaniasis. Evidence for expansion of distinct helper T cell subsets, Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.169, issue.1, pp.59-72, 1989.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.169.1.59

A. Crosby, F. Jones, M. Southwood, S. Stewart, and R. Schermuly, Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling Correlates with Lung Eggs and Cytokines in Murine Schistosomiasis, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol.181, issue.3, pp.279-288, 2010.
DOI : 10.1164/rccm.200903-0355OC

L. Yu, X. Sun, F. Yang, Y. J. Shen, and J. , Inflammatory cytokines IFNc , IL-4, IL-13 and TNF-a alterations in schistosomiasis: a meta-analysis, 2012.

L. Hooper, D. Littman, and A. Macpherson, Interactions Between the Microbiota and the Immune System, Science, vol.336, issue.6086, pp.1268-1273, 2012.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1223490

A. Khosravi, A. Yáñ-ez, J. Price, A. Chow, and M. Merad, Gut Microbiota Promote Hematopoiesis to Control Bacterial Infection, Cell Host & Microbe, vol.15, issue.3, pp.374-381, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chom.2014.02.006

A. Mckee and E. Pearce, CD25+CD4+ Cells Contribute to Th2 Polarization during Helminth Infection by Suppressing Th1 Response Development, The Journal of Immunology, vol.173, issue.2, pp.1224-1231, 2004.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.173.2.1224

F. Liu and J. Whitton, Cutting Edge: Re-evaluating the In Vivo Cytokine Responses of CD8+ T Cells during Primary and Secondary Viral Infections, The Journal of Immunology, vol.174, issue.10, pp.5936-5940, 2005.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.174.10.5936

G. Wei, L. Wei, J. Zhu, C. Zang, and J. Hu-li, Global Mapping of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 Reveals Specificity and Plasticity in Lineage Fate Determination of Differentiating CD4+ T Cells, Immunity, vol.30, issue.1, pp.155-167, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2008.12.009

O. Shea, J. Paul, and W. , Mechanisms underlying lineage commitment and plasticity of helper CD4+ T cells, Science, vol.327, 2010.

G. Vahedi, H. Takahashi, S. Nakayamada, H. Sun, and V. Sartorelli, STATs Shape the Active Enhancer Landscape of T Cell Populations, Cell, vol.151, issue.5, pp.981-993, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2012.09.044

Y. Kanno, G. Vahedi, K. Hirahara, K. Singleton, O. Shea et al., Transcriptional and Epigenetic Control of T Helper Cell Specification: Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Commitment and Plasticity, Annual Review of Immunology, vol.30, issue.1, pp.707-731, 2012.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev-immunol-020711-075058

J. Xu and S. Smale, Designing an Enhancer Landscape, Cell, vol.151, issue.5, pp.929-931, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2012.11.007

URL : http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2012.11.007

E. Gallo, S. Katzman, and A. Villarino, IL-13-producing Th1 and Th17 cells characterize adaptive responses to both self and foreign antigens, European Journal of Immunology, vol.12, issue.9, pp.2322-2328, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.201142227

L. Cosmi, F. Liotta, E. Maggi, S. Romagnani, and F. Annunziato, Th17 cells: new players in asthma pathogenesis, Allergy, vol.105, issue.Suppl 3, pp.989-998, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2011.02576.x

M. Peine, S. Rausch, C. Helmstetter, A. Fröhlich, and A. Hegazy, Stable T-bet+GATA-3+ Th1/Th2 Hybrid Cells Arise In Vivo, Can Develop Directly from Naive Precursors, and Limit Immunopathologic Inflammation, PLoS Biology, vol.11, issue.7, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001633.s001

J. Mwatha, G. Kimani, T. Kamau, G. Mbugua, and J. Ouma, High levels of TNF, soluble TNF receptors, soluble ICAM-1, and IFN-gamma, but low levels of IL-5, are associated with hepatosplenic disease in human schistosomiasis mansoni, J Immunol, vol.160, pp.1992-1999, 1998.

O. Adewusi, N. Nix, X. Lu, D. Colley, and W. Secor, Schistosoma mansoni:Relationship of Tumor Necrosis Factor-?? to Morbidity and Collagen Deposition in Chronic Experimental Infection, Experimental Parasitology, vol.84, issue.2, pp.115-123, 1996.
DOI : 10.1006/expr.1996.0097

S. Davies, J. Grogan, R. Blank, K. Lim, and R. Locksley, Modulation of Blood Fluke Development in the Liver by Hepatic CD4+ Lymphocytes, Science, vol.294, issue.5545, pp.1358-1361, 2001.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1064462

S. Davies, K. Lim, R. Blank, J. Kim, and K. Lucas, Involvement of TNF in limiting liver pathology and promoting parasite survival during schistosome infection, International Journal for Parasitology, vol.34, issue.1, pp.27-36, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijpara.2003.10.010

H. Spits and T. Cupedo, Innate Lymphoid Cells: Emerging Insights in Development, Lineage Relationships, and Function, Annual Review of Immunology, vol.30, issue.1, pp.647-675, 2012.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev-immunol-020711-075053

A. Price, H. Liang, B. Sullivan, R. Reinhardt, and C. Eisley, Systemically dispersed innate IL-13-expressing cells in type 2 immunity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.107, issue.25, pp.11489-11494, 2010.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1003988107

M. Mordstein, T. Michiels, and P. Staeheli, What Have We Learned from the IL28 Receptor Knockout Mouse?, Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research, vol.30, issue.8, pp.579-584, 2010.
DOI : 10.1089/jir.2010.0061

D. Damjanovic, M. Divangahi, K. Kugathasan, C. Small, and A. Zganiacz, Negative Regulation of Lung Inflammation and Immunopathology by TNF-?? during Acute Influenza Infection, The American Journal of Pathology, vol.179, issue.6, pp.2963-2976, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.09.003

K. Szretter, S. Gangappa, X. Lu, C. Smith, and W. Shieh, Role of Host Cytokine Responses in the Pathogenesis of Avian H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Mice, Journal of Virology, vol.81, issue.6, pp.2736-2744, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.02336-06

S. Chapoval, A. Garawi, J. Lora, I. Strickland, and B. Ma, Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation reduces the tissue effects of transgenic IL-13, 2007.

D. Curran and L. Cohn, Advances in Mucous Cell Metaplasia, American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol.42, issue.3, pp.268-275, 2010.
DOI : 10.1165/rcmb.2009-0151TR

J. De-miguel-diez, P. Carrasco-garrido, V. Hernández-barrera, P. Rodríguez-rodríguez, and L. Puente-maestu, Hospitalizations from pandemic influenza (pH1N1) infections among patients with asthma or COPD in Spain, Journal of Infection, vol.65, issue.1, pp.95-98, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jinf.2012.03.003

M. Decramer, W. Janssens, and M. Miravitlles, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, The Lancet, vol.379, issue.9823, pp.1341-1351, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60968-9

J. Allen and R. Maizels, Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths, Nature Reviews Immunology, vol.12, issue.6, pp.375-388, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/nri2992

J. Grainger, K. Smith, J. Hewitson, H. Mcsorley, and Y. Harcus, Helminth secretions induce de novo T cell Foxp3 expression and regulatory function through the TGF-?? pathway, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.207, issue.11, pp.2331-2341, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/nri1806

T. Reese, B. Wakeman, H. Choi, M. Hufford, and S. Huang, Helminth infection reactivates latent ??-herpesvirus via cytokine competition at a viral promoter, Science, vol.345, issue.6196, pp.573-577, 2014.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1254517

L. Osborne, L. Monticelli, T. Nice, T. Sutherland, and M. Siracusa, Virus-helminth coinfection reveals a microbiota-independent mechanism of immunomodulation, Science, vol.345, issue.6196, pp.578-582, 2014.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1256942